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The effect of sun on facial skin

The face, hands and décolleté are the most exposed areas of the body to UV radiation. And while sun, in moderation, can have an uplifting effect on mood, provide vitamin D, improve circulation and increase metabolism and productivity, excessive exposure is very harmful. Sun-induced skin damage includes premature skin ageing, hyperpigmentation and even skin cancer. It is therefore extremely important to give facial skin specific and consistent protection throughout the year.


SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

HOW TO RECOGNISE SUN DAMAGE ON FACIAL SKIN

Unprotected and excessive exposure to UVA and UVB rays can have both short- and long-term consequences, leading to premature skin ageing, immune suppression and even skin cancer. Importantly, these negative effects don’t only apply to holidays. UV radiation, especially UVA rays, are present all day, every day – winter as well as summer and on cloudy days as well as sunny ones – so facial sun protection should be considered as much a part of a daily skin care routine as cleanser, toner, or any other products, such as moisturisers and anti-ageing or hyperpigmentation care.

Illustration of sun exposure
Facial skin requires special attention because it’s different to the skin elsewhere on the body.
Woman looking right
Facial skin is more exposed to the elements than the skin on the rest of the body.

Facial skin has different properties to skin on the rest of the body:

  • It is thinner, 
  • has smaller cells, 
  • more pores and, 
  • because of higher numbers of sebaceous glands, it secretes more lipids.
  • It is also exposed to the environment on a day-to-day basis, making it prone to the effects of external factors such as wind, cold, smoke, pollutants and, of course, UVA and UVB rays. Read more about skin structure.


While body skin is often covered, facial skin is exposed to these external factors year-round. As a result, it needs to be protected from the sun with products specially designed for its needs. Read more about the effects of the sun on body skin.

Facial skin can be affected in a number of ways by UV radiation. This can vary from premature skin ageing to skin cancer.

Sensitive facial skin is particularly prone to sun damage. As sunlight has a dehydrating effect sensitive skin can become even dryer. This makes it more vulnerable to irritants, further aggravating its symptoms. It is therefore important that sun protection is specifically formulated for, and tested on, sensitive skin and that its properties answer the particular needs of the condition.

It’s important to recognise the signs or sun damage and sun sensitivity:

Premature skin ageing. 
There is no doubt that UV radiation is one of the most important factors in premature ageing of the skin. Signs include the appearance of wrinkles, loss of elasticity, age spots and rough skin.

Polymorphic light eruption (PLE). 
As little as 20 minutes of strong sun can trigger PLE, a rash that comes up after exposure to sun. The rash can take many forms including small red bumps, larger red areas and blisters. 

Hyperpigmentation. 
This is generally harmless, but nonetheless distressing, skin condition in which dark spots appear on the skin. It is largely caused by excessive sun exposure. 

Sunburn.
Red, sore skin caused by over-exposure, and lack of protection, to the sun. Although the whole body is at risk, most common areas are those that are in direct contact with the harmful UV rays ie shoulders, face, top of ears, bald scalps, tops of feet. It may not be evident straight away but develops over a few hours.

Woman with freckles and age spots
UV radiation is a major cause of premature aging.
Nose and mouth close-up
The face is one of the most likely parts of the body to experience sunburn.

Herpes simplex labialis.
One of the negative effects of UVA is suppression of the immune system. This makes skin vulnerable to viruses such as herpes simplex, also known as cold sores. These are small blisters that develop on the lips or around the mouth.

Skin cancer.
Skin cancer is most likely to appear on skin that has been over-exposed to the sun, so facial skin is at risk.

Read more about the negative effects of sun on skin.

If you have any concerns about your skin including sun burn and areas of hyperpigmentation, it is important to seek professional advice from a doctor or pharmacist.


CAUSES & TRIGGERS

HOW TO MINIMISE THE RISK OF UV EXPOSURE

The list of sun-related skin conditions may be long but the good news is that many can be avoided by:

Kid in sunglasses
Proper covering and the right sunscreen can help prevent sun damage.
Woman applying lotion
Including sun protection in your daily skin routine can minimise risk.

  • Moderate sun exposure, particularly when it’s at its strongest intensity between 11am and 3pm. 
  • Using sun protection products on exposed parts of the body and on the face as part of a daily skin care routine.
  • Thinking about sun protection even on cloudy days.
  • Ensuring babies and small children are kept away from direct sun exposure.
  • Keeping eyes protected by wearing sunglasses with UVA and UVB filters.
  • Choose the correct factor and product for each family member
  • Covering exposed skin with clothes and the head and face with a wide-brimmed hat.
  • Be aware of potential side-effects of any prescribed medication.

Read more about factors that influence skin.

Sun protection is important and can’t be ignored. Despite health warnings about the dangers of over exposure to the sun, the incidence of both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers has been increasing over the past decades. The key to staying safer in the sun is about understanding the risks, and adjusting behaviour to make sure skin is properly protected at all times - by using the shade and covering up, as well as choosing the right sun protection products.


CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

FACTORS THAT INCREASE THE RISK OF SUN DAMAGE

There are several factors that make a person more or less likely to suffer from a sun-related skin damage or sensitivity.

  • Age
    Prevalence rates of melanoma increase steadily by age band, with 55-64 year olds over three times more prone than 25-34 year olds.
  • Skin type
    Children and people with very pale skin, red or light blonde hair and many freckles are most sensitive to the sun’s rays.  Read more about skin types.
  • Medication
    Certain medications, including acne treatments, birth control pills and anti-biotics, can increase the skin’s sensitivity.
  • Genetics
    Research has shown that some people have a genetic predisposition to cold sores, which can be triggered by exposure to UVA rays.
  • Post-dermatological treatments
    Chemical peels or laser treatments can leave skin extremely vulnerable to UV rays.

Close-up  woman
Age, skin type and other circumstances can affect the risk of sun damage.
Chemical peel
Chemical peels can increase sensitivity to the sun’s rays.

SOLUTIONS

HOW TO PREVENT OR REPAIR SUN DAMAGE

Sun damage can be extremely dangerous, so protection is key.

Protection creams and lotions

Given the sensitive nature of facial skin, and its exposure to UV rays all-year-round, it is recommended that sun protection is applied to the face every day, and becomes part of the daily skin care routine:

  •  Apply the sunscreen generously before sun exposure.
  •  Avoid contact with eyes.
  •  Reapply frequently (every 2 hours) – especially after swimming, towelling and sweating –  insufficient application of sunscreen will reduce its protective effect.
  •  Avoid contact with textiles to prevent staining.

Eucerin Sun Products have been developed to meet specific skin types and skin concerns such as sun sensitivity brought on by problematic skin.

To protect from sun-induced ageing try Eucerin Sun Fluid Anti-Age SPF 30 or SPF 50, which protects against sunburn and sun-induced skin damage while reducing visible signs of photoageing.

For normal to combination facial skin try Eucerin Sun Fluid Mattifying, available as SPF 30 and SPF 50+, which provides highly effective protection from UVA/UVB rays. It also helps strengthens skin’s own cell protection against sun-induced damage, and supports DNA repair mechanisms.

For normal, dry and very dry facial skin use Eucerin Sun Creme, available as SPF 30 and SPF 50+. Read more about Eucerin Sun Creme.

Eucerin Sun Creme Tinted CC SPF 50+, suitable for all skin types, also contains colour pigments for a natural tanned looking skin tone, and also allows the covering up of pigment spots.

Woman touching cheek
Sun protection is available for all types of skin.

Other options

Woman in hat
A wide-brimmed hat is one way to reduce exposure to UV rays.
Woman drinking
Staying hydrated and choosing a healthy diet are vital to keeping healthy.

As well as sun protection creams and lotions it is important to remember to protect facial skin with a wide-brimmed hat or sun protection umbrella whenever possible and to:

  • Keep body and skin hydrated by drinking plenty of water
  • Protect eyes by wearing sunglasses with filters for UV rays.
  • Choose a diet that has been proven to play a part in sun protection.
    Fruit and vegetables that are rich in carotenoids (coloured red, yellow and orange) can strengthen the skin’s natural defences if eaten over a long period of time. Similar effects can be had from diets rich in omega fats (olive oil, oily fish), vitamin C, vitamin E and flavonoids and low in red meat and dairy.

Read more about sun protection for body skin.