Wrinkles: how to remove

Fine lines and wrinkles How can I reduce or remove them?

While our skin is as individual as we are and therefore ages differently from other people's skin depending on our genetics and lifestyle, the first signs of skin ageing normally start to appear at around the age of 30.

As the skin ages, its processes slow down and its structure weakens. The substances that keep the skin firm and smooth start to decline, and this is due to a combination of internal and external factors.

The most noticeable first signs of skin ageing are fine lines and wrinkles, which deepen with the passing of time. There is a range of ways to treat them and reduce their appearance. Some methods are invasive, whilst others are non-invasive. Some offer immediate benefits and others provide longer-term results.

CAUSES & TRIGGERS and CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

What causes fine lines and facial wrinkles?

Facial wrinkles are largely caused by ageing: the substances that keep our skin smooth, such as collagen, elastin and Hyaluronic Acid, begin to deteriorate as we get older.

There are both internal and external factors that cause wrinkles:

  • Internal factors: the natural (or biological) ageing process predetermined by our genes
  • External factors: environmental factors that cause oxidative stress to the skin, e.g. over-exposure to sunlight
Diagram illustrating how the structure of the skin changes as we grow older
The skin’s structure changes as we age and fine lines and wrinkles develop

Young skin has a structure that is similar to building blocks, with a regular arrangement of dermal tissue and a plentiful supply of collagen. It appears even and feels firm. From about the age of 25, however, a 1% annual decline in collagen levels, together with an increasingly disorganised dermal tissue arrangement, causes a loss of skin strength and the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Another key factor in the formation of fine lines and wrinkles is age-induced dryness. As a result of reduced skin functions, mature skin becomes increasingly dry and may be itchy and rough, too. This is, amongst other factors, due to a decrease in the amount of Hyaluronic Acid being produced in the skin. This is the moisture-binding substance that surrounds the cells and gives the skin its smooth, youthful appearance. This decline causes the skin to lose its full, firm feel and become more susceptible to creasing and deep wrinkles.

These general skin ageing processes also contribute to a loss of volume and, as the skin matures further, a loss of elasticity.

What exacerbates fine lines and wrinkles?

Wrinkles are an inevitable part of getting older, but there are both internal and external factors that can speed up their development:

Sun

Sun damage is the primary cause of photoageing (premature skin ageing caused by the sun) and contributes to wrinkles. Prolonged and repeated sun exposure causes damage to collagen, and this results in a less elastic, weakened skin structure that wrinkles more easily. Find out more in how UVA, UVB and HEVIS light affect the skin.

Wrinkles under the eyes are caused in large part by the sun
Sun exposure accelerates the development of fine lines and wrinkles more than any other external factor.

Pollution

Pollution triggers the release of free radicals and accelerates oxidative stress in the skin.

Smoking

Oxidative stress is triggered by smoking. Free radicals damage the skin’s structure and contribute to the general signs of ageing, including wrinkles. In addition, the nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes damage the collagen and elastin in skin. This has an effect on the skin’s elasticity and may also cause wrinkles.

Diet

Certain foods, mostly fruits and vegetables, are rich in antioxidants and can help to prevent premature ageing and slow down skin ageing in general.

Lack of sleep

The skin needs sleep to repair and regenerate.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Where do fine lines and wrinkles appear and why?

Unlike a loss of volume, fine lines and wrinkles are easy to spot as they appear as distinct lines or creases on the face. Over time, fine lines appear all over the face and develop into deep wrinkles, but they tend to become visible in certain areas first:

Wrinkles under the eyes

Fine lines around the eyes are often the first visible sign of skin ageing and are known as ‘crow’s feet’ or ‘laughter lines’. This is because the thinner skin in this area is more prone to developing lines than other parts of the face. Fine lines develop into wrinkles and become more pronounced over time. Wrinkles are also often most noticeable in the eye area.

Close-up shot of a woman's eye region: wrinkles often form under the eyes
The first visible fine lines and wrinkles appear around the eyes.

Wrinkles on the forehead

You may notice horizontal lines and furrows between the brows. These start as ‘mimic wrinkles’ and are partly caused by facial expressions. They deepen over time.

Close-up shot of a woman's furrowed brow, displaying the wrinkles on her forehead
Wrinkles on the forehead deepen over time

Nasolabial folds

Deeper wrinkles appear and link the nose and the mouth. These are known as nasolabial folds. The appearance of these wrinkles can be linked to a loss of volume as they are also a sign of sagging skin.

Wrinkles on face: nasolabial fold
Fine lines around the mouth and nose become deep and visible and are known as the nasolabial folds
SOLUTIONS

How can I reduce fine lines and wrinkles?

Although all healthy skin will age, there are things that you can do to help reduce the appearance of wrinkles and add radiance to your skin.

Complexion Correction

Faces with a smooth complexion tend to look younger. Tinted creams with colour pigments (such as Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler CC Cream) or make-up can be used as a short-term solution to even your skin tone and enhance your complexion. Choose a product which applies evenly, and does not form lines, to help your skin appear younger.

A woman uses Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler CC Cream to correct her complexion
CC Creams offer Complexion Correction for an even skin tone.

Wrinkle-reducing skincare solutions

Anti-ageing skincare products can help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. The following active ingredients (listed alphabetically) are used in anti-ageing formulas to reduce the appearance of wrinkles:

A woman uses a Eucerin skincare product to reduce the appearance of wrinkles under her eyes
Active ingredients in anti-ageing products can help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles.

Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHAs)

Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHAs)

These act like super-exfoliators. They break the bonds that hold dry and damaged cells together in order to encourage new skin to come through. The complex used in Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler Night Peeling & Serum combines three different acids – Glycolic Acid, Lactic Acid and Gluconolactone (a Polyhydroxy Acid) – that are clinically and dermatologically proven to gently but effectively exfoliate the skin and stimulate cell renewal. Gluconolactone also supports the matrix around skin collagen, protects against collagen degradation and helps the skin to maintain its elasticity.

Arctiin

Arctiin

Arctiin is a naturally-derived active ingredient that is extracted from the fruit of the Burdock plant. It stimulates the repair of weakened connective tissue in the cell walls. Arctiin also accelerates the collagen renewal process in skin cells which slows dramatically as we age. Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Elasticity Day SPF 15 and Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Elasticity Night with Arctiin improve elasticity and firmness in mature skin.

Argan Oil

Argan Oil

Argan Oil (also known as Argania Spinosa kernel oil) is an oil that is extracted from the kernels of the Argan tree. It contains up to 80% essential fatty acids (Omega-6 and Omega-9). The body uses fatty acids to produce and repair cell membranes and strengthen the skin so that it is able to perform the vital function of protecting the body. Argan Oil is also rich in Vitamin E (a powerful anti-oxidant), has anti-inflammatory properties and makes the skin smoother and softer. It is a key ingredient in Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Elasticity Night and Eucerin Elasticity + Filler Facial Oil.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10

Formulas with Coenzyme Q10, such as those in the Eucerin Q10 ACTIVE range, stimulate energy production within the cells.

Dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol, also known as Panthenol, is an extremely effective moisturiser. It improves hydration in the outermost layers of the skin and helps to reduce transepidermal water loss to keep the skin soft and elastic. Dexpanthenol enhances skin regeneration and repair overnight and is a key ingredient in Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler Night and Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Volume-Lift Night.

Glycine Saponin

Glycine Saponin

Glycine Saponin, also known as Glycine Soja Germ Extract, is an active ingredient extracted from the soya bean. It is one of the most effective stimulators of Hyaluronic Acid in the dermal layer of the skin and has been proven to increase Hyaluronic Acid production by up to 256% on a cellular level.1 It is a key ingredient in Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler.

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic Acid is formed by the skin cells and is part of the connective tissue of the skin. One of its key functions is to retain moisture, and it has the ability to bind in between 1,000 and 10,000 times its own weight in water (i.e. one gram binds between one and ten litres). As we age, the skin's natural ability to produce Hyaluronic Acid declines, and wrinkles start to form and deepen.

High- and low-molecular Hyaluronic Acid

Eucerin uses two different types of Hyaluronic Acid in the Hyaluron-Filler, Hyaluron-Filler + Elasticity, Anti-Pigment Dual Serum and Sun Photoaging Control formulas to effectively target and plump wrinkles from the inside out:

  • High-molecular Hyaluronic Acid (also known as long-chained Hyaluronic Acid). This remains on the skin’s surface and works to improve hydration in the outermost layer of the epidermis, where fine lines and winkles originate.
  • Low-molecular Hyaluronic Acid (also known as short-chained Hyaluronic Acid). With molecules that are 40 times smaller2 than those of high-molecular Hyaluronic Acid, low-molecular Hyaluronic Acid penetrates further into the epidermal layers where it stimulates the skin’s own production of Hyaluronic Acid, replenishing moisture where deeper wrinkles originate.

Magnolol

Magnolol

Magnolol is a highly effective active ingredient that is extracted from the bark of the Magnolia tree and is also known as Magnolia Officinalis Bark Extract. It triggers the excretion of a bio-active substance in the dermal layers of the skin which increases the synthesis of collagen and stimulates the number and size of volume-giving cells, "plumping" areas of diminished volume.3 It is a key ingredient in the Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Volume-Lift range.

Milk Thistle Oil

Milk Thistle Oil

The oil of the Milk Thistle plant (also known as Lady's Thistle or Silybum Marianium) is a common ingredient in anti-ageing skincare. It contains Linoleic acid (an Omega-6 fatty acid) and is known to nourish the skin and enhance its radiance. It is one of the oils used in Eucerin Elasticity + Filler Facial Oil.

Oligo Peptides

Oligo Peptides

Oligo Peptides stimulate the collagen network responsible for a firmer skin structure. They also improve collagen synthesis in the dermal layers of skin, thereby strengthening the dermal connective tissue.3 They are extracted from the fruit and seeds of the Anise plant, which was originally cultivated for its skin-enhancing properties and are also known as Pimpinella Anisum Fruit Extract. They are a key ingredient in the Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Volume-Lift range.

Silymarin

Silymarin

Silymarin is extracted from the fruits of the Milk Thistle plant (also known as Lady's Thistle). It is a powerful antioxidant, helping protect collagen and elastin from oxidative stress, and strengthens the skin's microcirculation system at a cellular level. It is a key active ingredient in the Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler + Elasticity formula.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E

Vitamin E (also known as Tocopherol) is a powerful anti-oxidant that protects the skin against the free radicals that cause oxidative stress and helps to support its natural resilience. It is one of the ingredients in Eucerin Elasticity + Filler Facial Oil.

Invasive wrinkle treatments

Any wrinkle treatment that involves an invasive procedure should be carried out by a dermatologist, or other professional, in a clinical environment. Invasive wrinkle treatments include:

Dermal filler injections: These are designed to fill out wrinkles by plumping up the skin, most commonly with Hyaluronic Acid.

Medical research has shown that the use of some skincare products containing Hyaluronic Acid can significantly improve the effects of Hyaluronic Acid filling treatments when skincare products are used regularly after the injection over a prolonged time − especially around the eyes. Hyaluronic Acid is the main active ingredient in the Eucerin Hyaluron-Filler anti-ageing family and is proven to deliver results, especially in the eye area.

Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections: These work by temporarily restricting facial muscle movement. They are most commonly used on the forehead and around the eyes. This reduces the wrinkles caused by facial expressions. The effects wear off after several months and the procedure must be repeated to maintain results.

Dermal filler injections use Hyaluronic Acid to treat deep nasolabial folds between the nose and mouth
Dermal fillers are often used to treat the deep nasolabial folds between the nose and mouth.
Wrinkles on forehead: Botox injection
Invasive treatments should be performed in a clinical setting.

  1. Study report: Saponins – a new generation of Hyaluronan-stimulating actives for human skin, S. Gallinat, F. Rippke, C. Keppler, J. Mergell, A. Bürger, F. Stäb, H. Wenck Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany
  2. The standard unit for measuring the mass of an atom is a kilo Dalton (kDa). High molecular Hyaluronic Acid has a kDa of 2000 and low molecular Hyaluronic Acid has a kDa of 52. Both are contained in the Hyaluron-Filler, Hyaluron-Filler + Elasticity and Sun Photoaging Control formulas.
  3. In-vitro studies

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